Adorno, Theodore & Max Horkheimer. Dialectic of Enlightenment. "The authors state that their disagreements provide the dialectic that, hundreds of unreasonably dense pages later, may lead to enlightenment. This is a heavy, beautiful book." (from http://spinelessbooks.com/bookviews/collaboration.html)


The Affair at the Inn – a novel by Kate Douglas Wiggin, Mary Findlater, Jane Findlater & Allan McAulay published in 1904 in New York by Grosset & Dunlap.


Claribel Alegría (1924) & Darwin J. Flakoll (-1995) – husband and wife, writers, editors and translators. Their novel “Ashes of Izalco” 1989:

"Written in two voices, Ashes of Izalco is... a love story set against the events of 1932 when thirty thousand Indians and peasants were massacred in Izalco, El Salvador. Ashes of Izalco brings together a Salvadoran woman and an American man who together struggle over issues of love, loyalty and socio-political injustices."

(from http://www.americas.org/bookstore/category_2027_product_283)

They have collaborated on a number of testimonials including "Death of Somoza", "Tunnel to Canto Grande", "The Sandinista Revolution", and "They'll Never Take Me Alive".


Ashbery, John & Robert Shuyler. A Nest of Ninnies. "Keith Waldrop claims that this collaborative novel was written using the procedure of having the two authors alternate sentences. Unless they lived very close to one another, I suspect this rumor is apocryphal, but is a good idea nonetheless."

(from http://spinelessbooks.com/bookviews/collaboration.html)


Sheila Ascher (1944) & Dennis Straus - novels: The Menaced Assassin (1982), The Other Planet (1988), ABC Street (2002), and a collection of stories Red Moon/Red Lake (1988). As of recently MONICA’S CHRONICLE (beginning with January 1976) will be published in irregular installments on their website.  A short introduction about the Chronicle and its relationship to the two volumes of ABC STREET (second volume, HANK FOREST’S PARTY, forthcoming from Green Integer) can also be read there. http://ascher-straus.com/ 


Penelope Ashe - novel: "Naked Came the Stranger" New York: Lyle Stuart, Inc, 1969. Penelope Ashe is a pseudonym for a group of authors. Many other collaborative ventures took up the Naked Came... title to hint at their collective authors ("Naked Came the Phoenix" and "Naked Came the Manatee").



Atlanta Nights is a collaborative novel written by a group of science fiction and fantasy authors, who decided to create a particularly bad novel in order to challenge the submission and editorial policy of PublishAmerica, a POD publisher.



W. H. Auden (1907-1973) & Christopher Isherwood (1904-1986) - plays: "The Dog beneath the skin" 1935., "The Ascent of F6" 1937. (based in part on the legend of T. E. Lawrence), "On the Frontier" 1938.

Isherwood will later in his life, after moving to Hollywood, embrace Hinduism. Together with Prabhavananda he produced several Hindu scriptural translations, Vedanta essays, the biography "Ramakrishna and his Followers", novels, plays and screenplays, all imbued with themes and characters of Vedanta karma, reincarnation and the Upanishadic quest.

W. H. Auden collaborated on several works with poet Chester Kallman (1921-1975). Among other on libretto "The Rake's Progress" 1951. by Igor Stravinsky. With Louis MacNiece he wrote "Letters from Iceland" 1937. and with Benjamin Britten (1913-1976) the chamber opera "Paul Bunyan" as well as libretto for "Ballad of Heroes", 1939. With T. C. Worsley (1907-1977) "Education Today & Tomorrow" 1939.  


Emile Augier (1820-1889) & Julien Sandeau (1811-1883) & Eugene Marin Labiche (1815-1888) & Edouard Foussier – Augier collaborated separately on several plays with each of these authors.



Don Bachardy (1935) & Christopher Isherwood (1904-1986)

"The two became writing partners for the first time on a stage adaptation of "The World in the Evening" in 1958-59...

In 1968, David Hockney painted a portrait of the couple sitting in matching wicker armchairs in their Santa Monica living room. This portrait solidified their status as a gay couple. Throughout the decade that followed, in fact, Isherwood and Bachardy became icon of the gay rights movement on the west coast... At the time of the Hockney portrait, the two began another collaborative project, one that would keep them working together for several years. Their stage adaptation of "A Meeting by the River" was produced at the Mark Taper Forum in 1972, directed by James Bridges, director of the films "Urban Cowboy" and "The China Syndrome" and part of their extensive network of gay friends. According to Bachardy, 'The collaboration was designed by Chris and me, consciously or unconsciously, as a means to keep us together. We just thought it would be nicer if we could be together more of the time. Instinctively we both hit on this idea of collaboration.' This renewal of their professional collaboration also produced the teleplay for an NBC production called "Frankenstein: the True Story". They began work on the project in 1971, and the adaptation was broadcast in 1973. The literary collaborations put a stop to their frequent separations and contributed significantly to the durability of the relationship. Isherwood was practiced in artistic collaboration: he co-authored three plays with W.H. Auden in the 1930s and worked with many other writers, such as Aldous Huxley and Terry Southern, on numerous screenplays. The Isherwood-Bachardy works, all but "October" (1981), seem to have followed the method of many artistic collaborations. Bachardy described the process to Chattarjee:

'We discussed the story in detail for days, weeks. We worked out the construction together. We each had ideas, made suggestions, and developed from each other's suggestions until we had a general direction, a general sense of our characters and how they were going to interact. And then at that very decisive moment when the first serious words of the script were to be written, I took my place at the typewriter and Chris dictated to me.... We had a very symbiotic relationship. And that's always how our collaborations worked.'

Two of the final Isherwood-Bachardy collaborations were in print form. "October" is a collection of thirty-one diary entries written by Isherwood in October 1979, and thirty-two portraits drawn, mostly in pen and ink, by Bachardy during the same month..." from James J. Berg. "Pen and Ink: The Life and Work of Christopher Isherwood and Don Bachardy", in "Living with a Writer". Edited by Dale Salwak. Palgrave Macmillan. New York 2004. pg: 118-125

"Then, finally, their most poignant collaboration came in 1985 - 86, "The Last Drawings of Christopher Isherwood", in which Bachardy painted his mentor, friend, lover, every day up to his death, through his death, after his death."

from: http://www.smmirror.com/volume5/issue45/of_literature_art.asp


Maria Isabel Barreno (1939) & Maria Teresa Horta (1937) & Maria Velho da Costa (1938) In 1972. Portuguese literary circles were shaken by the publication of "Novas Cartas Portuguesas" a volume of collected notes, stories, letters, and poems by Maria Isabel Barreno, Maria Teresa Horta, and Maria Velho da Costa. Banned because of its erotic and feminist nature, the book was allowed to circulate after the collapse of the Salazar dictatorship in Apr., 1974. In the United States the book was published as The Three Marias: New Portuguese Letters (1975).


Beckman, Joshua & Mathew Rohrer. Nice Hat. Thanks. 2002.

(from http://spinelessbooks.com/bookviews/collaboration.html)


Elisabeth Bekker Wolff (1738-1804) & Agatha Deken (1741-1804) - Dutch romanticists, they wrote sentimental epistolary novels, among them "Historie van Mejuffrouw Sara Burgerhart" 1788, "Historie van Willem Leevend" 1784-1785; they are also known under names Betje Wolff and Aagje Deken


John M. Bennett & Jim Leftwich - "Cleen", "Loud Work": collaborative visual poems

Robin Crozier & John M. Bennett - "The Chapters 1980-2001", "Meat Click", 1980.

Reed Altemus & John M. Bennett - "YR Cream Dip"

Ivan Arguelles & John M. Bennett - "Chac Prostibulario", 2001. "Decima Mucho", 2001.

Sheila E. Murphy & John M. Bennett - "Lens Rolled in a Heart", 1990.

C. Mehrl Bennett & John M. Bennett - "Applied Appliances", "Some Blood, Joint Poems"

Bruce Andrews & John M. Bennett - "White Screen, Poetry and Graphics" 1976. published by New Rivers Press


Bill Berkson (1939) & Anne Waldmann (1945) - "Young Manhattan" 1999., publisher: Smokeproof Press, collection of poetry


Anselm Berrigan & Edmund Berrigan (1975) - "In the Dream Hole", chapbook published by MAN Press  

Lisa Birman & Josepha Conrad, three collaborative chapbooks of poetry - Copycat, AS IF Fibonacci # (a movie), and "O" - a conversation.


Jorge Luis Borges (1899-1986) & Adolfo Bioy Casares (1914-1999) - Bioy Casares and Borges were introduced in 1932. by Victoria Ocampo whose sister, writer Silvina Ocampo married Bioy Casares in 1940. Borges and Casares wrote under the pseudonym H. Bustos Domecq. Together they wrote the parody detective stories "Seis problemas para don Isidro Parodi", 1942 (translated 1981 as "Six Problems for Don Isidro Parodi"), two fantasy stories "Dos fantasías memorables" ("Two Memorable Fantasies", 1946) - the original publication was a private printing of 300 copies, with no commercial printing until 1970. Detective fiction "Un modelo para la muerte" ("A Model for Death", 1946) was originally published under the name B. Suarez Lynch; the original publication as in the case of the two fantasy stories was a private printing of only 300 copies; the first commercial printing was in 1970. "Libro del cielo y del infierno", ("The Book of Heaven and Hell", 1960) was also published under the name of H.Bustos Domecq. Deliberately pompous critical essays by an imaginary author are: "Crónicas de Bustos Domecq", 1967, (translated 1976 as "Chronicles of Bustos Domecq"), and "Nuevos Cuentos de Bustos Domecq", (1972. "Borges, a Reader" says 1977). They also wrote together two screenplays: "Los Orilleros" (1955, "The Hoodlums") and "El Paraíso de los Creyentes" (1955, "The Paradise of the Believers").


Katherine Bradley (1848-1914) & Edith Cooper (1862-1913) - published under the name of Michael Field, collected poems in: "Underneath the Bow" 1893., "The Wattlefold: Unpublished Poems by Michael Field" Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1930


Olga Broumas (1949) & Jane Miller - "Black Holes, Black Stockings" 1985., publisher: Wesleyan University Press, Middletown

"We undertook to co-author a book through a desire to transcend personality and its aggregate of habits, to sidestep these into what we hoped would be a more sensual intelligence informed by our studies of subatomic physics, its implied philosophy and methodology at play in the macrocosm around us, South Greece and France. We agreed on two rules: write every day, which, life being distracting or spectacular, translated to 4-5 out of 7; and don't look back till it's done. We wrote pieces together, wrote separately and revised together at day's end, composed aloud (Barthe's writing aloud), spoke to a tape recorder, one meditated and the other wrote in her aura. We put the first draft away for two years, and then, in a dramatic two week period, performed a drastic final draft."

- more at: http://www.scc.rutgers.edu/however/print_archive/broumas.html


Olga Broumas (1949) & T. Begley - "Sappho's Gymnasium" 1994., publisher: Copper Canyon Press, Port Townsend - collection of poems, the two of them also collaborated on "Open Papers", the translation of Greek Nobel Laureate, Odysseas Elytis and published three chap-books: "Unfolding the Tablecloth of God" (Red Hydra Press), "Helen Groves" (Kore Press) and "Ithaca, Little Summer in Winter" (Radiolarian Press)


Brün, Marianne & Respondents. Designing Society. 1985. A living-book with about 36 authors, including Zeus.

(text at http://spinelessbooks.com/chandra/ds.pdf)


Eugene Burdick (1918-1965) & William Lederer (1912-?) – novels: The Ugly American, Sarkhan: a novel, The 480, The Deceptive American; Harvey Wheeler (1918-2004) & Eugene Burdick – novel: Fail-Safe, 1962



Adolfo Bioy Casares (1914-1999) & Silvina Ocampo (1903-1994) - married couple of writers belonging in the center of the Buenos Aires intellectual group which began a most original assault on literary representations of reality, starting around 1940.

Wrote together: "Los que aman, odian" ("Those Who Love, Hate", 1946). With poet J. Rodolfo Wilcock she wrote "Los traidores (pieza teatral en verso)", Buenos Aires, Losange, 1956. Re-edited by Ada Korn, 1988.

Jorge Luis Borges, Adolfo Bioy Casares & Sivina Ocampo co-edited the "Antología de la literatura fantástica", Buenos Aires, Sudamericana,1940; 2da ed. 1965, 3ra ed. 1970, 4ta ed. 1990. and "Antología poética argentina", Buenos Aires, Sudamericana, 1941.


Joseph Conrad (1857-1924) & Ford Madox Ford (1873-1939) -  "The Inheritors" 1901., "Romance" 1903.



Michael Davidson & Lyn Hejinian (1941) & Ron Silliman (1946) & Barrett Watten - "Leningrad" is a collection of poetic essays published 1991. In August 1989, a new, independent organization of young Soviet writers hosted the first international conference for avant-garde writers to be held in the USSR since the Russian Revolution. "Summer School - Language, Poetry, Consciousness" was a grassroots attempt to harvest the fruits of glasnost, bringing together poets and scholars from Siberia to San Diego. This book is a commentary on the intellectual revelations that resulted when postglasnost Soviet and American intellectuals meet face to face. (see other collaborations of Lyn Hejinian)


Gilles Deleuze (1925-1995) & Felix Guattari (1930-1992) - French philosophers, wrote together and separately. Their collaborative books are: "Anti-Oedipus" 1972. "Kafka: Towards a Minor Literature" 1975, "A Thousand Plateaus" 1980, "What is Philosophy" 1991.


Jose Maria Eca De Queiroz (1843-1900) & Ramalho Ortigao (1836-1915) - 1870. they published their first collaboration, the story "The Mystery of the Cintra Road" and in 1883. "As Farpas" appeared, "a series of satirical and humorous sketches of various phases of social life, which, to quote the poet Guerra Junqueiro, contain the epilepsy of talent. These essays, the joint production of the same partners, criticized and ridiculed the faults and foibles of every class in turn..." (http://www.1911encyclopedia.org/E/EC/ECA_DE_QUEIROZ_JOSE_MARIA.htm)

"As Farpas" can be read in Portuguese at: http://www.sakoman.net/pg/html/12579.htm


Charles Dickens (1812-1870) & Wilkie Collins (1824-1889) - "No Thoroughfare", a play (1867)


Mohammed Dib (1920-2003) & Paul Vangelisti (1945) - "La Trip: A Novel in Verse" written in 1999. and published bilingually by Green Integer in 2003. It's a collaboration which went far beyond mere translation. From his home in France Dib was writing about his visions of Los Angeles (based on his stay in LA in 1976-1977) sending parts of the work in progress to Paul Vangelisti, LA poet and translator who then returned to Dib his translations which were more often than not creative responses to Dib's verses. Although conceived as a bilingual project, this novel was first published in France only in French. (see also Paul Vangelisti's collaboration with poet Dennis Phillips)


Debra Doyle & James D. Macdonald (1954-)  – contemporary science-fiction writers, collaborated on novels, short stories etc. http://www.sff.net/people/doylemacdonald/books.htm


Denise Duhamel (1961) & Maureen Seaton - contemporary American poets, so far collaborated on three books of poetry: EXQUISITE POLITICS (Tia Chucha Press, 1997, now out of print), OYL (Pearl Editions, 2000) & LITTLE NOVELS (Pearl Editions, 2002). Denise Duhamel's latest book of poems, TWO AND TWO, is forthcoming from Pitt in 2005 and Maureen Seaton's latest is VENUS EXAMINES HER BREAST (Carnegie Mellon, 2004). With David Trinidad, they have edited a big book of collaborative poetry entitled SAINTS OF HYSTERIA, due out from Soft Skull Press in 2006. They both currently live and teach in South Florida.

Read selection from Exquisite Politics and Oyl (Admit Two, No. 1, Sept. 1st, 2004.)

Visit Pearl Editions at:www.pearlmag.com/pearled.html

or read an interview with Duhamel & Seaton by Nikki MacDonald (from Painted Bridge Quarterly) at: www.pbq.rutgers.edu/issues/63/mcdonald.html



T. S. Elliot (1888-1965) & Ezra Pound (1885-1972) - "The Waste Land" 1922.


Louise Erdrich & Michael Dorris - "The Crown of Columbus" 1991.


M. Barnard Eldershaw was the pseudonym of Marjorie Barnard (1897-1987) and Flora Eldershaw (1897-1956). Barnard and Eldershaw met while studing at the University of Sydney.

"Eldershaw and Barnard collaborated on their first novel, A House Is Built (London, 1929), which shared first prize in the Bulletin novel competition with Katharine Susannah Prichard's Coonardoo (London, 1929). On occasions, Barnard and Eldershaw together drafted an outline before each worked on sections which the other revised. They wrote Green Memory, (London, 1931), The Glasshouse (London, 1936) and Plaque With Laurel (London, 1937). Under her own name, Eldershaw published Contemporary Australian Women Writers(1931, an address to the Australian English Association, Sydney) and several articles in the Journal of the Royal Australian Historical Society; she also edited The Australian Writers' Annual (1936) and The Peaceful Army (1938). In 1938 Eldershaw and Barnard produced a critical study of Australian literature, Essays in Australian Fiction (Melbourne); an historical work, Phillip of Australia (London), was followed by My Australia (London, 1939) and The Life and Times of Captain John Piper (1939) which was commissioned by the Australian Limited Editions Society."

(from http://www.reasoninrevolt.net.au/biogs/E000176b.htm)



Factorial, press and literary magazine. http://www.factorial.org/about.htm:

"Factorial Press was founded in order to publish and encourage collaborative writing, and has been expanded to include works in translation. Recent published works have included poems, plays, prose, instructions, conversations, headphone-driven performance text, titles, games, and scores." 


William Faulkner (1897-1962) & Joan Williams - "Requiem for a Nun" 1950., a part-prose, part-play sequel to Faulkner's "Sanctuary." "The Graduation Dress," a script written in 1952.

William Faulkner also collaborated with Sherwood Anderson (1876-1941) when they were both living in New Orleans and Faulkner’s friendship with Phil Stone has been collaborative in nature since Stone was Faulkner's first mentor and Faulkner used Stone’s family stories for its own prose as Susan Snell describes in Phil Stone of Oxford: A Vicarious Life (U of Georgia P, 1991).


Hermann Field (1910-2001) & Stanislaw Mierzenski – novels “Angry Harvest” in 1958 and “Duck Lane” in 1961. http://www.nypress.com/print.cfm?content_id=4170


Hermann Field & Kate Field – a husband and wife, wrote together their memoirs ''Trapped in the Cold War: The Ordeal of an American Family'' in 1999. http://www.bu.edu/bridge/archive/2000/12-08/coldwar.html


Jane Findlater (1865-1963) & Mary Findlater (1866-1946) - "Tales that are Told" 1901., "Crossriggs" 1908., "Penny Monypenny" 1911., "Content with Flies" 1916., "Seen and Heard Before and After 1914" 1916., "Beneath the Visiting Moon" 1923. Jane & Mary Findlater wrote together with Kate Douglas Wiggin (1856-1923) and Allan McAulay: "The Affair at the Inn" 1904., "Robinetta" 1911.  


"The Floating Admiral" – a novel written in 1931 by the Certain members of the Detection Club, a group of authors, among them the most notably Agatha Christie. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Floating_Admiral


Carlo Fruttero (1926) & Franco Lucentini (1920-2002) - they wrote fiction and non-fiction together, worked together as translators and as editors;  "La Donna della domenica" 1972.,  "A che punto e la notte" 1979., "Il palio delle contrade morte" 1983., "L'amante senza fissa dimora" 1986, "Enigma in luogo di mare" 1991., comedy "La cosa in se" 1991,  collections of essays: "La prevalenza del cretino" 1985, "La manutenzione dell sorriso" 1988, "Il ritorno del cretino" 1992. In an interview for "La Reppublica" from July 25th, 2003, Carlo Fruttero spoke a year after his friend's suicide (committed in advanced stage of cancer) :

"I am not capable of doing anything any more, without the control of Lucentini. After I succeed to escape to an affectionate reminiscence, memories of life, and start to think about a new complex narration, I lose the courage. Maybe something will change in the future, but for now this is how the things are..."


"To be able to work in two, without quarrelling, one has to have a great amount of self-esteem, otherwise you get hurt, offended, depressed after the first criticism. The secret of our companionship was but pure conceit, a monstrous amount of self-respect. We were in absolute symbiosis. This ego-trip kept us together..."


Four Horsemen group - a collaboration of four contemporary Canadian poets: Rafael Barreto-Rivera, Paul Dutton, Steve McCaffery and bp Nichol



Bianca Garufi & Cesare Pavese (1908-1950) - "Fuoco Grande" 1959, this unfinished novel was found among manuscripts after Pavese's suicide in the hotel room in Turin and was first published ten years after his death by Italo Calvino who at the time was the editor of Pavese's work for "L'Einaudi" publishing house; it is a love story written from both male and female perspective by the two lovers and writers, Garufi writes the story from the perspective of Sylvia and Pavese from the perspective of Giovanni

Sandra Gilbert & Susan Gubar - contemporary literary theoreticians, collaborative works include: "The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the Nineteenth Century Literary Imagination". Yale UP, 1978. More at: http://virtual.clemson.edu/caah/women/flc436/gilbertgubar.html


Gillespie, William; Frank Marquardt, Scott Rettberg, Dirk Stratton. The Unknown. 1998-2002. http://www.unknownhypertext.com. The Unknown: An Anthology. 2002. The rock band model of authorship.

(from http://spinelessbooks.com/bookviews/collaboration.html)


Lisa Glatt & David Hernandez (1971) - "A Merciful Bed", collection of collaborative poems publisher: Pear Editions


Edmond Louis Antoine Huot de Goncourt (1822-1896) & Jules Alfred Huot de Goncourt (1830-1870) - French naturalist school, novels include: "Soeur Philomene" (1861), "Renee Mauperin" (1864), "Germinie Lacerteux" (1864), "Mme Gervaisais" (1869), a study: "The Woman of the Eighteenth Century" (1862). In 1851 the brothers began the "Journal des Goncourt" (9 vol., 1887-96), an immensely successful publication devoted to an intimate account of 40 years of Parisian society.


Robert Grant (1852-?) & John Boyle O'Reilly (1844-1890) & Frederic Jesup Stimson (1855-1943) & John T. Wheelwright (1856-?) - novel "The King's Men" (1884).

Frederic Jesup Stimson & John T. Wheelwright also collaborated on "Rollo's Journey to Cambridge" (1880).  


Jacob Ludwig Carl Grimm (1785-1863) & Wilhelm Carl Grimm (1786-1859) influenced by the folk poetry collection of Clemens Brentano and Achim von Arnim, Des Knaben Wunderhorn, begin to collect folktales. The Grimms' first collection of folktales was not published during their lifetime. It was a manuscript containing 53 stories, some written out in detail, others sketched in brief outline form. In December 1810 they submitted this collection to Clemens Brentano and Achim von Arnim for inclusion in a planned third volume to their successful collection of folk poetry Des Knaben Wunderhorn (The Boy's Magic Horn, 3 volumes, 1806, 1808, 1808), which was to be dedicated to folktales. This fairy-tale volume never materialized, and the manuscript was not returned to its authors, but the Grimms' interest in collecting and editing folklore did not die. In 1812 they came out with their own fairy-tale collection entitled Kinder- und Hausmärchen (Children' and Household Tales), a book containing 86 numbered folktales. In 1814. volume two of Kinder- und Hausmärchen appears in print, pre-dated 1815, adding 70 stories to the previous collection. This famous work will see six additional editions during the Grimms' lifetime. In its final version it will contain 200 numbered stories plus 10 "Children's Legends." It is destined to become the best known and most influential book ever created in the German language. Between 1816. and 1818. the Grimms publish two volumes of Deutsche Sagen, a collection totalling 585 German legends. In 1819. Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm receive honorary doctorates from the University of Marburg. Their scholarly work on linguistics, folklore, and medieval studies continues, resulting in many publications. Wilhelm Grimm marries Henriette Dorothea (Dortchen) Wild in 1825, who -- together with other members of her family -- had provided the Jacob and Wilhelm with many of their best folktale texts. In 1829-1830 the Grimms resign their positions as librarians in Kassel where they worked from 1808. and accept positions at the University of Göttingen as librarians and professors. In 1837-1841 professors Grimm join five of their university colleagues in a formal protest against a constitutional violation of Ernst August, King of Hannover. The seven professors (Die Göttinger Sieben) are fired. The Grimm brothers receive many offers for new positions, and finally accept appointments at the University of Berlin. In 1842-1852 the Grimms continue their scholarly work and political activities, but finally give up their formal appointments at the University of Berlin (Jacob in 1848, Wilhelm in 1852) in order to dedicate themselves to their own studies and research. Major joint publications include: Altdeutsche Wälder  (Old German Forests), 3 volumes, 1813, 1815, 1816. Miscellaneous writings on linguistics, folklore, and medieval studies. Der arme Heinrich von Hartmann von der Aue (Poor Heinrich by Harmann von der Aue), 1815. An edition with commentary of an important medieval German epic. Lieder der alten Edda (Lays from the Elder Edda), Irische Elfenmärchen (Irish Fairy Tales), 1826. This is a translation, with a long and insightful introductory essay, of Thomas Crofton Croker's book Fairy Legends and Traditions of the South of Ireland (London, 1825). Deutsches Wörterbuch (German Dictionary), 32 volumes, 1852-1960. The Grimms themselves saw only the entries A through Forsche of this monumental historical dictionary published during their lifetime. The remaining parts were published by several generations of scholars over a 100 year span.

from: http://www.pitt.edu/~dash/grimm.html#jointpublications



Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864) & Sophia Amelia Peabody Hawthorne (1809-1871) - At the beginning of their relationship, her illustrations appeared in some of his writings. Hawthorne wrote "The Marble Faun" in Europe 1859., and Sophia made significant contributions to its writing. She was becoming more interested in writing, but Nathaniel disapproved of her "passionate style". When Atlantic Monthly asked her for some contributions to publish, he blocked her from following up. When Nathaniel Hawthorne died in 1864, Sophia began editing and publishing his "Notebooks". She submitted selections to the Atlantic and published three volumes of his notes, in 1868-1870.

More at: http://womenshistory.about.com/library/weekly/aa032299.htm


Robert Headley & Rafael Zepeda - contemporary poets, "The Wichita Poems" by Pearl Editions:

"The poems in this travel collection recount some of the experiences encountered by the authors at the 1993 annual conference of the Western Literature Association . . ."


Lyn Hejinian & Emilie Clark - "The Traveler and the Hill and the Hill" published by Granary Bokks in 1998.; collaboration between the artist and the poet

Leslie Sclapino & Lyn Hejinian  - "Sight" published by Edge Books in 1999.

Ray Di Palma & Lyn Hejinian  -  "Chartings" published by Chax Press in 2000.

Jack Collom & Lyn Hejinian  - "Sunflower" published by The Figures in 2000.


Arno Holz (1863-1929) & Johannes Schlaf (1862-1941) - "Papa Hamlet Ein Tod Lernmaterialen" 1889. (under the pseudonym Bjarne P. Holmsen), "Die Familie Selicke"1890., German naturalistic dramas.


Liam Hudson (1933-2005) & Bernadine Jacot - husband-and-wife team of scientists; in 1987 they set up the Balas Co-partnership where they pursued inquiries both in psychology and in the visual arts and design: "They wrote books jointly. The central idea of The Way Men Think (1991) was the male “wound” sustained by infant boys distancing themselves from the mother, as they identify with the father in order to develop masculinity; the benefits claimed are that men achieve abstract and mechanical reasoning, the accompanying penalties a liability to insensitivity, misogyny and sexual perversion (characteristics much rarer in women). The case histories presented in the book include the photographer Edward Weston, the novelist and poet Thomas Hardy, and the painter Pierre Bonnard. The jointly written Intimate Relations (1995) extended the analysis to include women, aiming to show that both sexes are poor at understanding the intimate needs of partners, on account of different early psychological development in each gender - these patterns of incomprehension contribute to heterosexual fascination. A parallel was drawn between erotic intimacy and art, both calling for the exercise of imaginative powers."

from: http://www.timesonline.co.uk/article/0%2C%2C60-1546205%2C00.html


Langston Hughes & William Grant Still, play “Troubled Island,” 1936; Langston Hughes & Arna Bontemps (1902-1973)  Popo and Fifina, Children of Haiti 1932, a travel book for children; Countee Cullen (1903-1946) & Arna Bontemps  "St. Louis Woman," play, 1946; Jack Conroy & Arna Bontemps The Fast Sooner Hound, 1942, Slappy Hooper, the Wonderful Sign Painter, 1946, Sam Patch, the High, Wide & Handsome Jumper, 1951


Zora Neale Hurston (1891-1960) & Langston Hughes (1902-1967) – play “Mule Bone”.



Ilya Arnoldovich Ilf (1897-1937) & Yevgeny Petrov (1902-1942) - Russian satirical tandem, their novels: "Twelve chairs" 1928. and "The Golden Calf" 1931.; both novels share the main character, adventurer and vagabond Ostap Bender, a man skillful in taking advantage of the weaknesses of Soviet society; other works include: novel "A Pure Soul", collection of stories "1001 Days, or a New Scheherazade" 1928. under the name of F. Tolstoevsky, their travel through USA they described in the "One-Storied America" 1936., satirical novel "Tonya" 1937.



James Joyce (1882-1941) & Samuel Beckett (1906-1989) & Frank Budgen (1882-1971) & James Stephens (1882-1950) & al. -  Finnegans Wake

Barbara Reich Gluck in Beckett and Joyce: Friendship and Fiction (Bucknell University Press, 1979) describes “[t]he role played by Beckett and other assistants [which] included collating words from these languages on cards for Joyce to use and, as Joyce's eyesight worsened, of writing the text from the author's dictation.” Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Joyce

“Joyce and  [Frank] Budgen spent much of the war in the same city and similar social circles. According to Budgen's 1934 memoir James Joyce and the making of Ulysses, Joyce discussed aesthetic matters with Budgen a number of times, often referring to the content of Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, Ulysses and Finnegans Wake. The latter of these two, Budgen stated, Joyce referred to at the time as Work in Progress; indeed a number of the conversation he reports as having had with Joyce imply that the author was working out the form and content of this work in part by arguing with Budgen.” Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frank_Budgen



Alice Kipling (1868-?) & Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) - Echoes (1884), a volume of imitations and parodies in verse


Rudyard Kipling (1865-1936) & Wolcott Balestier (1861-1891) : wrote together a novel, The Naulahka http://whitewolf.newcastle.edu.au/words/authors/




Eugene Marin Labiche (1815-1889) & Jean Marie Michel Geoffroy (1813-1883) – collaborated on several plays. Labiche also collaborated on several plays with Alfred Delacour, Adolphe Choler & al.


Mary Lamb (1764-1847) & Charles Lamb (1775-1834) - "Tales from Shakespeare" 1807., Mary wrote the comedies and Charles the tragedies, in the first six and several of the subsequent editions her name doesn't appear on the title page.


LEGEND is a collaborative project by Language school poets: Bruce Andrews, Charles Bernstein, Ray Di Palma, Steve McCaffery, and Ron Silliman (L=A=N=G=U=A=G=E/Segue, New York, 1980.):



Joseph C. Lincoln (1870-1944) & Freeman Lincoln – father and son, collaborated on few novels, among them “Blair’s Attic” published in 1929. in New York by Coward-McCann.



Locus Solus II magazine, issue  2, summer 1961, A Special Issue of Collaborations edited by Kenneth Koch.


Jack London & Anna Strunsky Walling - "The Kempton-Wace Letters" 1903.  

Malcom Lowry (1909-1957) & Margerie Bonner Lowry

"There's long been a ranging debate over how much of 'Under the Voclano' she wrote. She certainly rewrote and edited Lowry's later works which were issued after his death. At one point in Canada Malcom wrote Priscilla (Margerie's sister) a letter describing how "we" are working on a book - the book he was referring to was 'Under the Volcano'."

from Lionel Rolfe. "In Search of Literary LA". California Classics Books, Los Angeles, 1991. pg 96.



Sara Maitlan & Michelene Wandor - "Arky Types (Methuen Modern Fiction)" 1987, publisher: Methuen, UK; Sara Maitlan is by her own words novelist, fabulist, feminist  and Michelene Wandor is a playwright, poet, short story writer, reviewer, broadcaster, theatre historian and musician. Except for the above title, they work separately.


Danilo Manera (1957) & Jose Miguel Sanchez, Yoss (1969) - "Vedi Cuba e poi muori"  in Italian, and "De Cuba al cielo" in Spanish 1997.; Manera is an Italian and Yoss a Cuban writer, Manera speaks Spanish, but Yoss doesn't speak Italian. About this collaboration Yoss said:

"To many people it seems impossible that two persons who don't speak the same language (I do not speak a word of Italian) have succeeded to write together... Danilo took one of my stories, not a very good one. He said he liked two of the characters, but the third one (who was supposedly myself) was too much. So together we constructed a new character..."

There is an interview (in Italian) with both of them at: http://www.cafeletterario.it/interviste/manera.html


Daphne Marlatt & Betsy Warland -  "Double Negative" 1988. collaborative poetry of a Canadian and an Australian poet


Karl Marx (1818-1883) & Friedrich Engels (1820- 1895) met in Paris, 1844.  after Engels contributed to “Franco-German Annals”, a journal edited by Marx. First article they wrote together was “The Holy Family” in 1845. On 25th January 1845, Marx received an order deporting him from France. Marx and Engels decided to move to Belgium, a country that permitted greater freedom of expression than any other European state. Engels helped to financially support Marx and his family. Engels gave Marx the royalties of his book “Condition of the Working Class in England” (1844.) and arranged for other sympathizers to make donations. This enabled Marx the time to study and develop his economic and political theories. In July 1845 Engels took Karl Marx to England. They spent most of the time consulting books in Manchester Library. Engels and Marx returned to Brussels and in January 1846 they set up a Communist Correspondence Committee. The plan was to try and link together socialist leaders living in different parts of Europe. In 1848. Engels and Marx began writing a pamphlet together. Based on a first draft produced by Engels called the “Principles of Communism”, Marx finished the 12,000 word pamphlet in six weeks. Unlike most of Marx's work, it was an accessible account of communist ideology. Written for a mass audience, “The Communist Manifesto” summarized the forthcoming revolution and the nature of the communist society that would be established by the proletariat. Soon the government expelled Engels and Marx from Belgium. Marx and Engels visited Paris before moving to Cologne where they founded a radical newspaper, “New Rhenish Gazette”. The men hoped to use the newspaper to encourage the revolutionary atmosphere that they had witnessed in Paris.
Engels helped form an organization called the Rhineland Democrats. On 25th September, 1848, several of the leaders of the group were arrested. Engels managed to escape but was forced to leave the country. Karl Marx continued to publish the “New Rhenish Gazette” until he was expelled in May, 1849. Engels and Marx now moved to London. The Prussian authorities applied pressure on the British government to expel the two men but they were refused. With only the money that Engels could raise, the Marx family lived in extreme poverty.
In order to help supply Karl Marx with an income, Engels returned to work for his father in Germany. The two kept in constant contact and over the next twenty years they wrote to each other on average once every two days. Friedrich Engels sent postal orders or £1 or £5 notes, cut in half and sent in separate envelopes. In this way the Marx family was able to survive. Engels devoted the rest of his life to editing and translating Marx's writings. This included the second volume of “Das Kapital” (1885). Engels then used Marx's notes to write the third volume of “Das Kapital” (1894).

from: http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/TUengels.htm

Their other works include: “The German Ideology” ,  “On the Question of Free Trade”, “England’s Seventeenth-Century Revolution”, “Strategies and Tactics of the Class Struggle”.


Mayer, Bernadette, et al. The 3:15 Experiment. Utopia.

(from http://spinelessbooks.com/bookviews/collaboration.html)


Nikoo McGoldrick  & James A. McGoldrick – contemporary romance writers, also wrote “Marriage of Minds: Collaborative Fiction Writing”. Portsmouth: Heinemann, 2000.


Dimitar Miladinov (1810-1862) & Konstantin Miladinov (1830-1862) – Macedonian poets and folklorists, who collected a total of 665 songs and 23.559 verses and published them as “Bulgarian Folk Songs” 1861. Konstantin and Dimitar Miladinov had a major role in the national awakening of the Macedonian people. With their teaching activities and the collecting of the Macedonian folk literary works, they set the grounds for the modern Macedonian literature.


John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) & Harriet Taylor (1807-1858) - collaborated on number of works, most notably on "On Liberty" and Mill's "Autobiography". Taylor herself insisted her name be left out.

Read "On Liberty" (Admit Two, No. 1, Sept. 1st, 2004.)


Graciela Montes (1947) & Ema Wolf (1948)

Two Argentinean writers known for their children's books wrote together a novel, "El turno del escriba", under the pseudonym Mark Twin (published in 2005.).

"The novel is set in the Italian city of Genoa during the 13th century and tells the story of Marco Polo and his scribe, Rusticello..."

from: http://www.usatoday.com/life/books/news/2005-03-01-argentine-winners_x.htm


Anna Maria Mori & Nelida Milani - contemporary writers from Italy and Croatia, novel "Bora" in Italian. Como: Edizioni Frassinelle, 1998. Joint memoir by the two Italian women who were born in the region of Istria, one emigrated to Italy, the other stayed in Croatia. Chronologically covering period from November 1918 to April 1979, the actual story spans from late 1930s to the present day. 



Suniti Namjoshi (1941) & Gillian Hanscombe - poetesses, write separately but some poems they wrote together.



Frank O'Hara (1926-1966) & Bill Berkson (1939) - "Hymns of St. Bridget & Other Writings" 2001. publisher: The Owl Press: This volume by the legendary O'Hara and Berkson presents out of print and never-before-published collaborations, including an experimental novel about two brothers, a play written aboard a cross-Atlantic flight, and poetry on a variety of subjects including the work of Philip Guston and Willem de Kooning.


Joe Orton (1933-1967) & Kenneth Halliwell (1926-1967) - The Last Days of Sodom, 1957 and other unpublished novels. More at:








Queen, Ellery was actually Frederic Dannay & Manfred B. Lee. The cousins wrote 82 books together.

(from http://spinelessbooks.com/bookviews/collaboration.html)



Peter Redgrove (1932-2003) & Penelope Shuttle (1947) - collection of poems "The Hermaphrodite Album" 1973., novel "The Terrors of Dr. Treviles: A Romance" 1974., novel "The Glass Cottage: A Nautical Romance" 1976., non-fiction: "The Wise Wound: Eve’s Curse and Everywoman" 1978., revised 1986., "Alchemy for Women: Personal Transformation through Dreams and the Female Cycle", 1995.  


Arthur Rimbaud ( 1854-1891) & Paul Verlaine (1844-1896).



George Sand (1804-1876) & Julien Sandeau (1811-1883) – novel “Rose et Blanche”  1831, written under the pseudonym Jules Sand. Julien collaborated on several plays with Emile Augier (1820-1889), among them “Le Gendre de M. Poirier”.


Arno Schmidt (1914-1979) & Alice Murawski Schmidt (1916-1983) ?


Elke Schmitter (1961) & Veit Heinichen (1957)

Contemporary German writers who although having separate writing careers published crime novels under the pseudonym Viola Schatten who also has her own biography at: http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/karr_wehner/schatten.htm


James Schuyler (1923-1991) & John Ashbery (1927) - "A Nest of Ninnies" 1976; from the cover of the first edition:

"The insular tranquility of a group of suburban New Yorkers is shattered by two vivacious sisters from Paris in a comic novel about the pretensions of America's upper-middle-class by two of America's foremost poets."

Simone Schwarz-Bart (1938) & Andre Schwarz-Bart (1928) - novel, "Un Plat de Porc aux Bananes Vertes"/A Dish of Pork with Green Bananas  (1967), recounts a Martinique woman's alienation from French society and her search for her lost Caribbean identity. "La Mulatresse Solitude"/A Woman Named Solitude (1972) - reconstruction of a slave woman's life in the late 18th Century, in Guadeloupe. "In Praise of Black Women" (2001.) - four volume series celebrating women in Africa and African diaspora from past to present.


Seattle. Invisible Seattle: The Novel of Seattle. 1987. A novel by the city of the same name. (from http://spinelessbooks.com/bookviews/collaboration.html)


Mirko Seljan (1871-?) & Stevo Seljan (1875-1936) after leaving their native Croatia explored and travelled through Africa and Latin America. Their scientific discoveries (geological, ethnological, climatological etc.) are described in books they wrote together: “El Salto del Guayra” published 1905. in Buenos Aires, “Kroz prasume u pustinju” published 1912. in St. Louis, “Kroz pustinju i prasumu: pripoviesti” published 1943. in Zagreb.


William Shakespeare (1564-1616) – Between the collaborative environment of the theatre where his plays were created, the fact that the First folio was prepared by his colleagues, John Heminges and Henry Condell in 1623, seven years after Shakespeare’s death and also having in mind acknowledged collaborative plays (Titus Andronicus written with George Peele, Timon of Athens with Thomas Middleton, Pericles with George Wilkins, Henry VIII and The Two Noble Kinsmen with John Fletcher), it is legitimate to ask isn’t William Shakespeare a major collaborative project of English literature? Some of the answers offer among others David Scott Kastan in Shakespeare and the Book (Cambridge UP, 2001) and Brian Vickers in Shakespeare, Co-Author (Oxford UP, 2002).


Georg Simmel (1858-1918) & Gertrud Simmel (1864-1938) – their collaborations are still to be explored. Georg Simmel was a famous sociologist who dealt with “grammar of social life” i.e. the relations between individuals and groups and issues of sociability and associations. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Georg_Simmel

Gertrud Simmel, on the other hand, was a philosopher interested in the subject of man-woman relationships who wrote under the pseudonym of Marie-Luise Enckendorf. http://www.philosophinnen.de/lexikon/s/simmel.htm


The Sitwells – three siblings who between 1916 and 1930 formed a literary circle in London. Edith Sitwell (1887-1964), Osbert Sitwell (1892-1969) and Sacheverell Sitwell (1897-1988) collaborated in writing and published anthologies together.


Edith Somerville (1858-1949) & Violet Martin (1862-1915) - novels include: "An Irish Cousin" 1889., "Through Connemara in a Governess Cart" 1892., "Beggars on Horseback: A Riding Tour in North Wales" 1895., "Some Experiences of an Irish R. M." 1899., "In Mr. Knox 's Country", "Irish Memories", "Stray-Aways", "An Enthusiast", "French Leave", "Sarah's Youth", "Notions in Garrison".


Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902) & Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906) - American feminists Stanton and Anthony were close friends who collaborated on women's rights and other reforms for fifty one years. Together, they developed the arguments and strategies to achieve their shared goal of securing equal rights for all American citizens, and authored numerous writings and speeches, including the History of Woman Suffrage (1881-85) with Matilda Joslyn Gage (1826-1898) More about their work: http://ecssba.rutgers.edu/index.html

or read chapters from Stanton's autobiography.


Irving Stone & Jean Stone - "Lust for Life" 1934. and other works, he as a writer and she as an editor.


Arkady Strugatsky (1925-1991) & Boris Strugatsky (1933) – science fiction writers (brothers) collaborated on many novels.



The Sturdy Oak: A Composite Novel of American Politics by fourteen American authors published in 1917.  http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/8435



Wallace Thurman (1902-1934) & Abraham L. Furman, novel The Interne (1932), William Jourdan Rapp & Wallace Thurman  "Harlem: A Melodrama of Negro Life in Harlem" ( 1929 ), and a three-act play "Jeremiah, the Magnificent" (1930)


Alice B. Toklas (1877-1967) & Gertrude Stein (1874-1946) - " The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas" 1933.


David Trinidad (1953) & Bob Flanagan (1952-1996) collaborated on a chapbook of poetry (twelve poems) titled "A Taste of Honey", published in 1990. by Cold Calm Press.
In 2000, Ignition, Inc. published a chapbook called "Chain Chain Chain."  It's a renga
chain (100 stanzas) David Trinidad wrote with Jeffery Conway and Lynn Crosbie.
In 2003, Turtle Point Press published "Phoebe 2002: An Essay in Verse," which Trinidad
also wrote with Jeffery Conway and Lynn Crosbie.  The book is over 650 pages (it took
3 years to write); it's a mock-epic based on the movie "All About Eve." 


Mark Twain (1835-1910) & Charles Dudley Warner (1829-1900) - "The Gilded Age" 1873.

Mark Twain (1835-1910) & Willian Dean Howells (1837-1920) - collaboration on at least one play.





Paul Vangelisti (1945) & Dennis Phillips - "November", collaborative poems written weekly throughout one year.

"So during the first quarter, when Paul would arrive at my house for our weekly dinners, to which were invited a number of our poet and artist friends, I would hand him a nine-line poem. On Saturday he would hand me his nine-line response. During the second quarter, we would exchange poems on Friday, and those poems would be more generally responsive to the project. For the third quarter Paul took the lead on Fridays and I'd respond on Saturday. And the final quarter was done as the second was."

Dennis Phillips explaining the collaboration process in the literary magazine "Factorial". first issue. edited by Sawako Nakayasu. Providence-San Jose. Summer 2002. pg: 79.


Carl Van Vechten (1880-1964) novel Nigger Heaven, 1926.” The most notable example of interracial literary collaboration during the Harlem Renaissance is certainly Carl Van Vechten’s novel, Nigger Heaven for which Van Vechten sought help from James Weldon Johnson, Rudolph Fisher and Walter White. When the issue of copyright for certain blues songs that were incorporated in the novel got raised, Langston Hughes wrote new verse to supplant them, thus saving his friend’s book” (Perry, Margaret. Silence to the Drums: A Survey of the Literature of the Harlem Renaissance. Westport and London: Greenwood Press, 1988. pg 20). 



Waldrop, Keith & Rosmarie "These two have put in at least four lifetimes of work as publishers, translators, writers, friends, and collaborators. Their collaborative autiobiography is Ceci n'est pas Keith / Ceci n'est pas Rosmarie (2002). Their volumes of collaborative poetry include Until Volume One (1973), Since Volume One (1975), and Light Travels (1992). Oh, and Well Well Reality."

(from http://spinelessbooks.com/bookviews/collaboration.html)


Lew Wallace (1827-1905) & Susan Arnold Wallace (1830-1907) - "Ben Hur: A Tale of Christ" 1880. and other works, "Lew Wallace: An Autobiography" 1906. completed by Susan Arnold Wallace  


Sidney Webb (1859-1947) & Beatrice Webb (1858-1943) – British socialists, economists and reformers who collaborated on numerous works. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sidney_Webb



What Lips: A Triple Crown of Sonnets by Kathrine Varnes, Marilyn Taylor, Tatyana Mishel, Emily Lloyd, Moira Egan, Patricia Brody & Amy Lemmon. Appeared in ZinkZine, no. 9, Summer 2006: http://www.zinkzine.com/ZinkZine09/WhatLips.htm


"The Whole Family" 1908. a collaborative venture of 12 authors: Mary Raymond Shipman (-1936), John Kendrick Bangs (1862-1922), Alice Brown (1857-1948), Mary Stewart Doubleday Cutting (1851-1924), Mary E. Wilkins Freeman (1852-1930), William Dean Howells (1837-1920), Henry James (1843-1916), Elizabeth Garver Jordan (1867-1947), Elizabeth Stuart Phelps (1844-1911), Henry Van Dyke (1852-1933), Mary Heaton Vorse (1874-1966), Edith Wyatt (1873-1958) ; The idea for this venture originated from William Dean Howells in 1906. Under the guidance of Elizabeth Jordan, the energetic editor of Harper's Bazaar each of the authors was invited to write a successive chapter in a story Howells envisioned as a definitive depiction of American family life.


William Wordsworth (1770-1850) & Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1772-1834) - "Lyrical Ballads" 1798.  


Edmund Wilson (1895-1972) & Mary McCharty (1912-1989) – literary critics (married) who collaborated on numerous works.



Malcolm X (1925-1965) & Alex Haley (1921-1992) - "The Autobiography of Malcolm X" 1965.






H I J K L M  
N O P Q R    
    X Y Z

This archive continues to grow. It will include predominantly literary collaborations, although there is a possibility that in future we might open it for authors of theory and art. At this time it covers only those deliberate, "conscious" collaborations in which both/all members had an equally significant part. The list is by no means finite, and we'll appreciate any assistance in form of new names, facts, links. Also report broken links if you should come across any.

Some of the collaborations were harvested from www.spinelessbooks.com and we hereby acknowledge their contributions. Thank you Spineless Books. 

updated: 12/14/2006